What is a cylinder liner?

Valve Seat/Cylinder block/Piston/TOP ring/2ND ring/OIL ring/Cylinder Liner

It is a cylinder that is fitted to the engine block to form the cylinder, and is one critical function part that forms the engine interior.
In Japan they are usually called Cylinder Liners, but some countries (companies) call them Cylinder Sleeves.

3 functions of Cylinder Liners

Function 1 Form the sliding surface

Reciprocating movement/Liner/Cooling water/Sliding surface

Tightly holds when the valve is seated, prevents compressed gas or combustion gas leaking into the manifold from between the valve and Valve Seat.

  1. High burn resistance
  2. Low self-friction
  3. Low friction with the piston ring
  4. Low lubricating oil consumption

Function 2 Heat conduction

Combustion heat/Liner/Cooling water

Reduces vale and cylinder head friction at the same time.

Function 3 Keep airtightness

Explosion/Stop the gas/Gas leaks

Prevent compressed gas and combustion gas leaking out. The liner should not be prone to deformation due to the high pressure/high temperature inside the cylinder.

The engine's cylinder wall is high temperature/high pressure, and the piston ring/piston is sliding at high speed, and particularly with truck/bus engines a long-life is demanded, so we use highly friction resistant casting material Cylinder Liners only for cylinders. Also, in recent years, to make engines light-weight, engine blocks are changing from casting to aluminum alloys, however, aluminum alloys suffer deformation and friction during direct sliding when used for the cylinder inner circumference, therefore, the aluminum die cast block is mainly used where the Cylinder Liner is cast-in.


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